Archive for the ‘Education & Resources News’ Category

“NWHM de Pizan Hat Auction: The Lucy Burns Hat”

September 13th, 2013

By: Laura Spears

“We shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts–for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments.” So read the banner carried by Lucy Burns in June, 1917. However, the words on her banner were not her own. Lucy’s banner contained a direct quote from President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of war on Germany. She and other “silent sentinels” that stood outside the White House gates often repeated President Wilson’s words on democracy back to him to plead the case of the 20,000,000 American women who were not self-governed.

Although the National Women’s Party had begun their banner campaign in January of 1917, the Sentinels outside of the White House with their signs were largely ignored until the United States entered World War I. After this, their messages directed toward a war-time President were seen as unpatriotic. The banners began to draw crowds. Sometimes these crowds grew angry and hurled insults and other objects. Policemen allowed onlookers to destroy the women’s banners and then arrested the women for the only legal charge that they could come up with: blocking traffic.
This was not the first time Lucy had been arrested for demonstrating. She and Alice Paul had met years before at a police station in England while incarcerated for demonstrating with English suffragists. Alice noticed that Lucy was wearing an American flag pin on her lapel and introduced herself. Upon their return to United States, both women began working with the National American Women’s Suffrage Association. In 1913, Lucy and Alice founded their own organization, National Women’s Party. The sole objective of the NWP was “to secure an amendment to the United States Constitution enfranchising women.”

Lucy and 30 other picketers were arrested and sentenced to jail time for the November 10th picket. Members of the NWP had been arrested on numerous occasions since June of 1917, but this incarceration would see the most brutal treatment of the women. They would be denied legal counsel, sanitary food, and sleeping conditions. As punishment for calling out to another inmate who was being abused by prison guards, Lucy’s hands were chained above her head to her cell door for an entire night. In protest of the poor living conditions, Lucy and other inmates began a hunger strike. Prison doctors physically restrained her and force-fed her through a tube inserted into her nostril many times during her imprisonment.
Lucy’s White House banner campaign gained national attention. There was a public outcry against the treatment of the imprisoned members of the NWP, and a federal amendment for women’s suffrage gained more support. The NWP used this national support and the congressional election of 1918 to replace congressmen who did not support suffrage with those who did. Soon, suffrage was the law of the land. Read the rest of this entry »

#ThrowbackThursday: Vintage Educational Videos

September 12th, 2013

by Elissa Blattman, Project Assistant

Have you ever found yourself watching vintage educational videos on YouTube?  Some of them seem quite silly and cheesy today, but they were intended to be serious teaching tools for teenagers and young adults.  Here are five of our favorite ones on the web. Do you remember watching any of these back in the day?

1. On breaking out of a dateless slump: “You know, grooming and cleanliness, and letting the boys know you’re around – those things are all important.  But it’s the friendliness and interest, and helpfulness that really counts.”

2. On dating: “You’re different from other girls…You’re smarter.  You’re almost like a man”

3. On women in the workplace: “You’ve got a new bearings inspector who happens to be a woman.  You need someone and there isn’t a man available.  It seems to me that whether the gal adds up to trouble or not is pretty much up to you.”

Read the rest of this entry »

“NWHM de Pizan Hat Auction: The Zora Neale Hurston Hat”

September 11th, 2013

By: Laura Spears

As early as childhood, the anthropologist and playwright, Zora Neale Hurston had a knack for swapping stories.

“I used to take a seat on top of the gatepost and watch the world go by. One-way to Orlando ran past my house, so the carriages and cars would pass before me. The movement made me glad to see it. Often, the white travelers would hail me, but more often, I hailed them and asked, ‘Don’t you want me to go a piece of the way with you?’

She would travel a little of the way with her new acquaintance, either telling them stories or asking them questions about themselves, then she would trot back down the road to her family’s home in Eatonville, Florida.

Traveling and story telling became Zora’s livelihood from the time she left Florida as a teenager in 1914.  She spent the rest of her life on the road, collecting stories and research that she would use in her plays, essays and novels. As an educated African American woman she helped debunk racist theories and share that evidence with audience through theatre. She is most remembered for her novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God.

Zora attended Howard University in Washington, D.C. From Howard, Zora went to New York, to study at Columbia College with the noted anthropologist, Franz Boas. Before Boaz, the study of anthropology was based mostly on anecdotal evidence instead of observable facts. Like all of his students, Boaz expected Zora to be meticulous in her research. One of her first field research tasks was to measure the skulls of her African American neighbors in Harlem. Armed with a set of calipers she carried in her purse, she set out to disprove the anthropological theory that blacks had smaller brains than whites.

As an anthropologist, Zora went on several tours of the southern United States collecting the folklore and songs of African American communities. She stayed in labor camps in Florida and collected the stories of lumber workers and railroad crews. She went to New Orleans and the Bahamas and studied hoodoo. Read the rest of this entry »

“NWHM de Pizan Hat Auction: The Claire Phillips Fascinator”

September 9th, 2013

By: Laura Spears

Claire Phillips, who would later go by the code name “High Pockets,” worked as an American spy during World War II. She was  born in Portland Oregon in 1908, and little is known about her life before the outbreak of World War II except that she worked as a singer and dancer, often with touring companies. In 1941, Claire was working at Club Alcazar in Manila. There, she met her husband, American Sargent John Phillips. The two married shortly after the U.S. entered World War II, on Christmas Eve in 1941.

When the Japanese invaded the Phillipines in January, the two were separated and Claire lost track of John. After months of heavy fighting, American forces surrendered the peninsula of Bataan. John, along with 75,000 American soldiers left on the peninsula, was now a prisoner of war.

Claire had fled Manila during the invasion, but she returned soon after the surrender. She had acquired false papers, and went under the new identity of Dorothy Clara Fuentes, a Filipina/Italian woman. As Madame Fuentes, Claire operated Club Tsubuki. This nightclub became the headquarters for her espionage ring. Every night, High Pockets and her staff of dancers would put on a cabaret for Japanese officers, pour their drinks, light their cigarettes and mingle among them. Claire would give all her attention to the most senior officer in the club; coquettishly steering the conversation toward topics such as when the fleet was leaving, where they were heading, and what they were carrying in their boats. Once her patrons left, Claire would slip a note to a Filipino runner with all of the information she had gathered that evening. The runner took the note to American guerillas, who then passed on the info to General MacArthur.

On one occasion, the commander of a flotilla of Japanese submarines asked as a special request that Claire perform a fan dance, since the flotilla would be leaving Manila in two days. Claire promised that if he returned the next night, the fan dance would be part of a going away party in honor of them. Wearing a deceptively nude-colored body stocking, dancing beneath a red spotlight with two large feather fans, Claire gave the commander and his men a memorable farewell. That night after their departure, she sent word of the fleet’s plans to MacArthur. The entire flotilla was later sunk. Read the rest of this entry »

#ThrowbackThursday: Queen for a Day

September 5th, 2013

by Elissa Blattman, Project Assistant

Pretend it is the 1950s.  You are a recently single mother who needs a high school diploma so you can get a job to provide for your five children.  Or, say, you need a wheelchair for your son who had an accident and became paralyzed.  Or you need home repairs to erase the memory of when your husband, who was dying of brain cancer, decided to take his own life before the disease could.  Would you go on national television, compete against other women’s hardships, and hope the audience would select yours via applause-o-meter as the saddest so you could win a bunch of prizes?  Thousands of other women did.

“Would you like to be Queen for a Day?”  That question was asked to American women every weekday for 19 years on the long running radio and television show, Queen for a Day.  The show has been called a precursor to today’s reality television and “the worst program in TV history.”  Despite the fact that contemporary critics bashed the show and modern critics have mostly written it off as unimportant to Popular Culture History, it dominated the ratings when it was on the air.

Queen for a Day debuted on radio on April 29, 1945 and on television on January 1, 1955.  During its time on television, the show averaged 13 million viewers per episode and was number one in the ratings.  A one minute commercial spot on Queen for a Day cost advertisers a whopping $4,000, and NBC cashed in $9 million each year from the show.  The show gave away $23 million in prizes. It aired in the middle of the day, which meant its target audience was middle class housewives who were home to watch it.  It went off the air in 1964.  Its contestants were always women, except during occasional special episodes where a “King for a Day” or “Newspaper Boy King for a Day” was chosen.

Read the rest of this entry »

“Great American Women and Their Hats: Costumes From History”

September 5th, 2013

Laura Spears, a recent graduate from the University of Texas at Austin’s MFA program in design and technology, has graciously donated a series of beautiful hats that she designed after historical women of inspiration. The hats will be auctioned at NWHM’s de Pizan Honors on October 9, 2013. Over the next three weeks (on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays), we will feature a spotlight on each of the eight hats that will be auctioned. To start off the series, Ms. Spears shares her inspiration for creating the project: Read the rest of this entry »

#HistoricalWomenWhoRocked: Osa Johnson

September 3rd, 2013

Have you ever rubbed down with kerosene oil to ward off mosquitoes? How about burning off leaches that double  in size after sucking your blood? Remaining calm as two-inch cockroaches crawl over you as you sleep?

Well, adventurer, explorer and author Osa Johnson did all these incredible things and more! Osa and her husband, Martin, were pioneering explorers, photographers, filmmakers and authors, who documented the lives of the indigenous people and wildlife of the South Seas Islands, Borneo, and East and Central Africa.  Their films serve as a record of these cultures and a wilderness that no longer exist today.

Osa Leighty was born in Chanute, Kansas on March 14, 1894. On May, 15 1910, at the age of sixteen, she married Martin Johnson of Independence, Kansas.  Martin had recently returned from an excursion to the South Seas with Jack London, who became famous for his wilderness novels, and  was touring the country presenting travelogues of  the trip;  Osa joined the tour after she and Martin married.  It soon became apparent to Osa that her new husband was always going to want a life of adventure, and she was determined to stand as his equal and share it with him.  After several years of traveling around the country, they scraped together enough money for an expedition to the South Seas, where they intended to film the natives in their natural state, not influenced by outside cultures.

Their first expedition left from San Francisco on June 5, 1917 to the island of Malekula in the South Pacific island chain called New Hebrides, where the Big Nambas were considered as savage a group of headhunters and cannibals as existed anywhere on earth.  Once on Malekula, they ascended through steep, thick jungle with a crew of eight natives, a small amount of film equipment and a handful of goods for trade.  They soon found the Big Nambas, and while Osa tried to interest their chief, Nagapate, in their goods, Martin rolled the camera.  It became clear that Nagapate was more interested in Osa than in the goods she was offering, and the crew made a hasty retreat, scrambling down the steep path with the natives in quick pursuit.  Fortunately, they were rescued by a British patrol boat.  The resulting film, Among the Cannibals of the South Pacific, was released the next summer in 1918 to much acclaim. Read the rest of this entry »

#FoodieFriday: Women & The Grocery Store

August 30th, 2013

By: Sydnee C. Winston, Project Coordinator

According to a recent study commissioned by the Private Label Manufacturers Association (PLMA) and GfK Custom Research North America, women still dominate grocery shopping. Despite significant increases in women’s professional and personal advancement in recent decades, the time they spend grocery shopping has not decreased. According to the report, “two-thirds of women still handle most of the grocery shopping–with three-quarters of those women forming shopping lists, and 53 percent taking time to clip coupons and research sales. Six in 10 of the women surveyed spend more than an hour shopping in the supermarket.”

According to the same study, women are also the “rulers of the kitchen.” “84 percent of women are the sole preparers of meals in the household, with 61 percent of women stating that they prepare meals at least five times per week. Moreover, the majority of these meals are not prepackaged, as 64 percent said they make most meals using fresh ingredients.”

How about you? Are you the primary grocery shopper for your family? Do you find that the results of this study rings true in your day-to-day life?  Tell us about your experience!

…And just because it’s Friday and we love interesting tidbits, we thought we’d share a fascinating video about supermarket psychology with you:

Click here to see the source and to read more about the study. Don’t forget to check back for next week’s #FoodieFriday.

#ThrowbackThursday: The girl who acted before Rosa Parks

August 29th, 2013

by Elissa Blattman, Project Assistant

Every American child learns about Rosa Parks in school.  On December 1, 1955, she, a black woman, was arrested for refusing to give her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus to a white man.  Her arrest led to a boycott of the city’s public transportation that lasted 381 days and ignited the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s.

Nine months earlier, Claudette Colvin was arrested for the exact same thing.  She was just 15 years old.

Colvin grew up in a poor black neighborhood in Montgomery, Alabama.  She was well accustomed with the Jim Crow laws of the South.  She says the first time she realized things were different for her was when she was a little girl and her mother took her to a department store.  A white boy started staring at her and laughing because she looked different than him. She put her hands up to his to show him they both were really the same.  Her mother slapped her for acting out and touching a white person.  She picked up quickly that black people “had to be on their best behavior” while out in public because of Jim Crow.  In school, she learned about inequalities black people in the South faced on a regular basis.  She attended an all-black school, as Alabama did not actually desegregate its schools until years after the 1954 Brown v. Board Supreme Court decision.  Her instructors took the time to teach their students about Jim Crow and about Black History, especially during February.  February was the month during which Negro History Week (as it was then known) was celebrated around the country, but Colvin’s school celebrated Black History for the entire month, as we do now, because her teachers felt black people were absent from history books. Her personal heroes were Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. Read the rest of this entry »

#ThrowbackThursday: The Abduction of Olive Oatman

August 22nd, 2013

Olive Ann Oatman was just an 11-year-old girl in the summer of 1849 when her father, Royse Oatman, a former farmer and store-owner from New York, decided to relocate her, her mother, her three sisters and her three brothers to the New Mexico Territory (now Arizona). Royse Oatman could not have known the tragic and horrific fate that would befall his family, and so with a mind to forge a better life for them, he and his family joined a colony of Brewsterite Mormons planning to settle in the Yuma area.

Some 50 colonists, including the Oatman clan, gathered at Independence, Mo. in the Spring of 1850. They’d organized a wagon train under James Brewster and on August 10, embarked on  their perilous journey down the Santa Fe Trail. It didn’t take long for dissension to cause confusion and conflict among the wayfarers and to cause the group to split. Eight of the wagons now followed the Rio Grande-Gila route with Royse Oatman at the helm. With a shift in his objective and a new determination to go to California, Oatman led his party with little mercy. They rode long and hard under the sun’s oppressive heat and atop the unruly terrain, and when several of his oxen collapsed from exhaustion and members of the crew wanted to stop and rest, Oatman forged on with his family, fearing that his stock would perish before reaching California.

The Oatmans had been traveling for nearly a year by March 18, 1851. The family was moving along the Gila River (later known as Oatman flat) when some 19 Yavapai  attacked them. They were eighty miles from Fort Yuma. Young Olive, now thirteen, watched in horror as her mother, father, brothers and sisters were bludgeoned in their heads with war clubs until they died. Only she and her sister, Mary Ann, aged seven, were spared. Her brother Lorenzo, fifteen, was left for dead but managed to escape. Read the rest of this entry »