We posted on Facebook last week about Rachel Jackson on the anniversary of her birthday. Some of you commented that the First Lady’s story was interesting and Facebook user, Susan, said she wished history like Jackson’s was more well-known. Inspired in part by Susan and other Facebookers, here is the first of a four part Throwback Thursday miniseries all about our first First Ladies. We all know about their Founding Father husbands from school, but not nearly as much information about the women themselves is common knowledge.
1. Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (1731-1802), wife of George Washington
Before George Washington, Martha Dandridge was married to her wealthy godfather, Daniel Custis. Daniel’s father was a volatile man who did not approve of his son’s love for the lower-status Martha. He had to be heavily persuaded before finally giving his permission for Martha and Daniel to wed. Though she and George never lived in the White House when he was president, Martha did move to Daniel’s large estate, “White House,” upon their marriage. Martha’s first father-in-law regularly made life difficult for the couple and Martha blamed Daniel’s untimely death in 1757 on the stress put onto him by his father. Daniel died without having made a will, which meant Martha became the executor of his estate and also meant she had more legal rights than women were normally permitted in the eighteenth century. Though she owned 300 slaves and over 17,000 acres of land, and was worth over 40,000 pounds, she lived in a time when women did not manage property or financial matters. Martha began looking for a new man to take over for her and the new widow was an attractive catch. Read the rest of this entry »
Barbara Billingsley’s June Cleaver on Leave It to Beaver (1957-1963) has long been remembered as the quintessential housewife who kept an immaculate home while managing to look immaculate herself in her trademark pearls and high heels. With reruns still playing in the United States and other countries around the world and with a remake of the series, The New Leave It to Beaver, in the 1980s, the perfect image of June has been seared into the minds of millions of people. While some like June Cleaver, others loathe her and give her a lot of flak for being the archetypal 1950s woman the second wave of the Women’s Movement was trying to liberate. If you search the internet, you can find all kinds of things from t-shirts to memes proclaiming people’s disdain for the June Cleaver lifestyle. Perhaps a closer reading of Leave It to Beaver, however, shows a side of June lost in people’s memories and amongst the criticism. Consider the four points below. Read the rest of this entry »
It’s June! You know what that means – summer, nice weather, and outdoor fun! That thought, and the potential financial gains from getting customers to travel from near and far in the nice weather to see his shows, must have at least crossed P.T. Barnum’s mind when he decided June 2, 1835 would be a good date to kick off his very first circus tour of the United States. The circus has long been a staple of American and European entertainment, but it also stands out as an early career opportunity for women (and people of color and people with disabilities or physical abnormalities) in the United States as well as a public example of women’s changing roles around the turn of the 20th century. From bearded ladies to snake charmers to bareback riders to high fliers, the circus was one place where women could escape the social and moral norms of the Victorian era and earn a living doing it. Read the rest of this entry »
Female television game show hosts have been few and far between. Though some women have been able to step into hosting roles, the world of game shows is still largely dominated by men. This week’s Throwback Thursday post is all about three of the women who have made their marks on one of the most popular genres of television since the medium’s inception.
Arlene Francis is perhaps best known as a panelist on the enduring classic television game show, What’s My Line?, on which she appeared regularly for 25 years. While she is well remembered for her appearances on What’s My Line?, she is much less remembered for the work she did on her very own long-running game show, Blind Date. Francis got her first radio role, on the show The March of Time, in 1931. She worked on radio throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and landed the opportunity to host the new radio matchmaking show, Blind Date,in 1943. Upon the decline of radio and the rise of television throughout the 1940s, Francis began to worry that her career as a radio personality would end. However, when Blind Datemoved from radio to television on May 5, 1949, Francis was given the opportunity to host that version of the show as well. She continued as host until 1952, when a new male host stepped in. In taking her hosting gig from radio to television, Francis became the first ever female television game show host. Her success on Blind Dateled to her appearances on What’s My Line?, as well as to her being casted as the first female emcee, or “femcee,” of the popular television variety show, Your Show of Shows. On top of her ongoing work on television, Francis went back to her radio career in 1961 with The Arlene Francis Show, which ran for nearly three decades until 1990.
Merida of the Disney-Pixar film, Brave, is the one Disney princess who many girls and their parents feel actually represents real girls. She looks like a “real girl,” is strong, independent, athletic, able to save herself from situations, and sees no need for a Prince Charming to take her away. When Merida was announced as the 11th and newest inductee into the Disney Princess Collection, many people were happy. However, before her coronation ceremony at Disney World on May 11, Disney gave her a makeover, making many people upset. Disney made her figure slimmer, her hair less frizzy, and her dress tighter and sparkly. They also took away her signature bow and arrows. After considerable outrage, though, Disney removed the new Merida from the princess section of their website in the United States and replaced her with the original. However, the new image still appears on other countries’ Disney sites and on her official Princess Collection merchandise. To many, Merida’s makeover is yet another example of Disney’s long history of upholding and promoting certain beauty standards and their problematic portrayals of gender roles. Some of the characters we remember watching and liking when we were younger perhaps do not always provide the best role models for children to emulate. Check out the examples below and see if you watch them differently now as adults. Read the rest of this entry »
If you like Motown music, you may be familiar with Berry Gordy, founder of Motown Records and genius behind the “Motown Sound” that swept the nation and world in the 1960s. But have you heard of Esther Gordy Edwards, Berry Gordy’s sister? Edwards started a co-op to provide money to family members in times of need and, in 1959, Gordy approached his family needing an $800 loan to start a record label. Gordy’s family members all agreed, except Edwards who questioned whether her brother could successfully run a business after a series of taking and leaving numerous jobs. She eventually decided to loan Gordy the money, which he put toward what would become Motown Records. Gordy later stated that his sister’s reluctance to lend him the money made him decide that he wanted her, out of their seven other siblings, to run the business side of the company. Read the rest of this entry »
It’s #Throwback Thursday at NWHM and today we’re paying homage to the bicycle. May is National Bicycle Month and we thought it would be fun to highlight some the ways that this zippy invention has historically impacted the lives of American women. So what do bikes have to do with women? It turns out that they had a revolutionary impact on the women’s movement of the early 20th century. Here are some interesting facts:
Fact #1: The origins of the bicycle are shrouded in mystery—it’s very difficult to attribute just one person to its invention. But on June 26, 1819, W. K. Clarkson, Jr. of New York received a patent for a velocipede (a human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels), and beginning in the 1860s Americans, both men and women, began to show an interest in the contraption. Read the rest of this entry »
This May marks the 40th anniversary of the original Battle of the Sexes tennis match between Bobby Riggs and one of the top two female tennis players in the game at the time…Margaret Court? Today, many people are not aware that Riggs played another woman before Billie Jean King, but he did.
In 1973, Riggs, a 55 year old former tennis champion and self proclaimed “tennis hustler,” believed he could make money off challenging a female tennis player at the top of her game to a match. Riggs regularly made bets and used gimmicks in challenging other players, such as adding chairs as obstacles and targets to his side of the court and holding a dog on a leash while playing. He began making comments in the media along the lines of, “girls play a nice game of tennis…for girls” and “we’re going to put those women right back where they belong, like they used to be…around the house. They were home builders. They didn’t try go out and get the man’s job away from them. And now when they can’t even do it half as good, they still want the same money.” Riggs challenged King, the other half of the top two female players at the time, to be the woman to take him on. King declined, so Court stepped up to the plate. Riggs and Court faced off on Mother’s Day, 1973 in a match that received a moderate amount of publicity and fanfare. Court’s nerves apparently got the best of her during the match, and she ended up losing quite badly. After his victory over Court, Bobby Riggs found himself on the covers of Time and Sports Illustrated magazines.
Billie Jean King was a well known tennis great by the time Riggs first challenged her, having won many tournaments and receiving many awards and accolades. In the early 1970s, she began playing on the newly established Virginia Slims tour, the first professional women’s tennis tour. The Virginia Slims tour struggled to receive support in the world of tennis during its early years. When Court lost to Riggs, King felt she needed to redeem women’s tennis and do something to keep the Virginia Slims tour alive. She accepted Riggs’ $100,000 challenge.
After a media circus that included press conferences and a 60 Minutes promotional appearance by Riggs, Riggs and King faced off at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas on September 20, 1973. Unlike the Riggs vs Court match, this match drew in over 50 million television viewers in the United States alone. The atmosphere inside the Astrodome, which was filled with over 30,000 people, started out much like a circus as well. King was carried onto the court like Cleopatra by the male track team of Rice University. Riggs entered the court in a rickshaw pulled by models he called “Bobby’s Bosom Buddies.” Riggs wore a warmup jacket that said, “Sugar Daddy.” King gave him a baby pig to represent his chauvinistic views, much like the one drawn on his shirt on the Time cover. Once the match got underway, though, the circus-like air died down. King won the first set and received a standing ovation from the women in the Astrodome. Howard Cosell, who was leading the commentary of the match, stated that many women watching at home must have done the same. King won the next two sets to beat Riggs in the best of five sets match with 6-4, 6-3, and 6-3 final scores.
The significance of King beating Riggs went beyond the single match they played on that September night in 1973. Signed into law the year before, Title IX provided more opportunities for women in sports, however, the men of sports were not always open to letting women into their arena. King proved that a woman could play a sport at the same professional level as a man, and even beat him at his game – women’s tennis was decided in best of three sets matches, while men’s tennis and the match King played against Riggs were decided on a best out of five basis. Billie Jean King has since become a proponent of Title IX and its importance to female athletes in the United States.
Watch below the first of five parts of an ESPN Classic interview and look back at the Battle of the Sexes with Billie Jean King.
In last week’s Throwback Thursday post, we showed you a bunch of sexist advertisements from the 1950s and 1960s that chastise women for not properly fulfilling their prescribed gender roles. This week, we would like to highlight some ads from the same period that show women’s changing roles and/or flip gender roles around altogether.
Check out this commercial for Ajax Liquid Cleanser where a husband offers to clean the kitchen floor for his wife. The wife comes into the kitchen, tells her husband that he is using the wrong product, and rolls her eyes when he questions what she is saying. He eventually agrees with her and uses Ajax to clean the floor. Unlike most of its contemporaries, this commercial is actually quite similar to many of today’s ads that portray men as incompetent around the house (see, for example, the Swiffer “Man Up, Clean Up” ads, such as this one that “teaches” men how to clean a kitchen floor). Read the rest of this entry »
Have you ever searched the internet for television commercials and print ads from the 1950s and 1960s? Sometimes what you find brings back memories and excitement over something forgotten with the past. Sometimes what you find is genuinely funny or interesting. Then again, sometimes what you find is this:
The message in this advertisement is “woe be unto” the wife who does not taste test coffee in the store before bringing it home to serve to her husband – an act that clearly deserves a spanking. This is an ad for Chase & Sanborn Coffee, just one of many sexist vintage ads that chastise women who do not perform their wifely duties up to their husbands’ standards and/or reinforce domestic gender stereotypes for women. Coffee companies, in particular, used this theme in many of their advertisements from this period. Take also, for example, this Folgers commercial from the 1960s, where the husband tells his wife that all he wants for his birthday is a “decent cup of coffee” before he leaves the house for work, disappointed. He compares the better coffee the “girls” at his office make to his wife’s, which causes the wife to discuss the matter with her friend and take her friend’s suggestion to use Folgers coffee to impress her husband. The husband returns from work to the new, “great coffee” that the “girls’ at the office” “can’t hold a candle to.” Read the rest of this entry »