1. Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894-1994 (W.W. Norton & Company, 1999), 88.

2. Harold Dean Trulear,“Reshaping Black Pastoral Theology: The Vision of Bishop Ida B. Robinson,” Journal of Religious Thought 46 (Winter89/Spring90).

3. Stephanie Shaw, What a Woman Ought to Be and Do: Black Professional Women Workers during the Jim Crow Era (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1996).

4. Elizabeth Clark-Lewis, Living In, Living Out: African American Domestics in Washington, DC 1910-1940  (Kodansha America, 1996), 61.

5. White, 112.

6. White, 144.

7. Darlene Hine, Black Women in America (Oxford University Press, 2005), 233.

8. Hine, 226.

dditional Resources

Brooks-Bertram, Peggy & Barbara Seals Nevergold. Go Tell Michelle: African American Women Write Back to the New First Lady. State University of New York Press, 2009.

Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. Knopf, 2000.

Giddings, Paula Harper. When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. Harpers, 1996.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow. NY: Basic Books, Inc., 1985.

Patterson, Orlando. Rituals of Blood: The Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries. Basic Civitas Books, 1999.

Salem, Dorothy. African American Women : A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland, 1993.

Thomas, Veronica G., Kisha Braithwaite, and Paula Mitchell. African American Women : An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.




Exhibit written and curated Dr. Ida E. Jones, of the Moorland Spingarn Research Center at Howard University, with editing and photo research assistance by Sydnee Winston.

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