Introduction

Leaving China & the
Journey Across the
Pacific

Cultural Traditions

Women in Early
Chinatowns

Anti-Chinese Violence
& Women's Resistance

Chinese Women at
Work

Educational
Opportunities

Women in Cultural
Work

The Great Depression
and War

Conclusion

Additional Resources


 

 

 

Interracial Marriage

Influenced by Southern anti-miscegenation laws banning interracial marriage and interracial sex during the post-Civil War era, in 1880 California’s Civil Code was amended to forbid marriage between a white person and a “Negro, Mulatto, or Mongolian.” Cartoons, theatrical performances, and songs reveal how popular culture tried to shape the interracial future of the United States.

In 1907 Congress declared that “any American woman who marries a foreigner shall take the nationality of her husband.”  This act echoed the miscegenation laws passed between 1861 and 1913 in California, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming.  In an attempt to limit the Chinese American population, these laws criminalized or voided marriages between Chinese and whites. 20