Credits and Additional Information
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1. Harry M. Benshoff and Sean Griffen, America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality at the Movies (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), 33.

2. Benshoff and Griffen, 33.

3. Tom Gunning, "The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde," in Early Film, ed. Thomas Elsaesser and Adam Barker (British Film Institute, 1989).

4. Shelley Stamp, Movie-Struck Girls: Women and Motion Picture Culture After the Nickelodeon (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 3.

5. Benshoff and Griffen, 34.

6. Stamp, 31-32.

7. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, "Alice Guy-Blache,"

8. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, "Lois Weber,"

9. Benshoff and Griffen, 215.

10. Gwendolyn Audrey Foster, Women Film Directors: An International Bio-Critical Dictionary (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995), 95.

11. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, "Dorothy Arzner,"

12. Karen W. Maher, Women Filmmakers in Early Hollywood (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), 180.

13. Slate from the movie "It," 1927.

14. Biograph Company, "Jeannie MacPherson,"

15. Stamp, 102.

16. Stamp, 102.

17. Stamp, 125.

18. Stamp, 127-128.

19. Stamp, 129.

20. Benshoff and Griffin, 211.

21. Benshoff and Griffin, 213.

22. Dawn B. Sova, Women in Hollywood: From Vamp to Studio Head (New York: Fromm International, 1998), 59.

23. Donald Bogle, Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films (New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 1989), 33.

24. Graham Russell Gao Hodges, Anna May Wong: From Laundryman’s Daughter to Hollywood Legen. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).

25. Joanne Hershfield, “Dolores Del Río, Uncomfortably Real: The Economics of Race in Hollywood’s Latin American Musicals,” in Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness, ed. Daniel Bernardi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 141.

26. Hershfield.

27. Tim Dirks, “The Greatest Films,”

Exhibit curated by Dr. Alison Landsberg at George Mason University (Film and Media Studies department) and written by NWHM interns Claire Love and Jen Pollack.