See "Introduction" by Edith Mayo in Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom:
American Women Win the m. Vote, ed. Carol O'Hare (Troutdale, Oregon:
NewSage Press,1995); also, One Woman, One Vote, citation to come.
2. For a thorough development of the concept of Republican
Motherhood see: Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and
Ideology in Revolutionary America. (Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina
3. Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement,
1890-1920. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1965), Chapter 5; William
L. O'Neill, Everyone Was Brave. (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969),
pp. 33-37; Mary P. Ryan, Womanhood in America from Colonial Times
to the Present. (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975), pp. 225-235.
4. "ERA Special Pullout Issue," New Directions for Women, (September/October,
1981), opposite p.15.
5. "Indiana State Convention," Justicia, Vol. 1., No. 4 (December,
6. "Show Your Colors," Justicia, Vol. 1, No.4 (December, 1887),
7. "The Local Headquarters; From Auburn," The Woman Voter,
Vol.5, No.5 (May, 1914), pp.20-21.
8. Mary Gray Peck, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. (New York:
H. W. Wilson Co., 1944), pp. 248, 251.
9. Inez Haynes Irwin, The Story of Alice Paul and the National
Woman's Party. (Fairfax, Va.: Denlinger's Publishers, 1977), p. 38.
The colors were adopted at the suggestion of Mrs. John Jay White.
No explicit reason for the adoption of those particular colors is
given, perhaps because they were so commonly known.
10. Accession and documentation papers from the NAWSA, Accession
64601, Political Collections, Division of Social History, National
Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
11. Richard Pankhurst, Sylvia Pankhurst: Artist and Crusader.
(London: Paddington Press Ltd., 1979), pp. 103-107.
12. Peck, p. 248.
13. Before joining the Congressional Union and, in 1916, the
National Woman's Party, Inez Milholland was a member of Harriot Stanton
Blatch's New York suffrage group, the Equality League of Self-Supporting
Women, founded in 1907. The Equality League became the Women's Political
Union in 1910, and merged with Alice Paul's Congressional Union in
1913. The "Forward Into Light" motto predates the formation of either
the Congressional Union or the Woman's Party. A banner with that motto
was used in the New York City suffrage parade held on May 4, 1912,
in which Inez Milholland rode mounted on a dark colored horse. She
wore a black hat, light colored riding costume, and dark gloves. See:
New York City Suffrage Parade, New York Times, May 5, 1912, p. 1.
14. A variety of National Woman's Party banners in purple,
white, and gold are housed in the National Park Service's Mid Atlantic
Regional Storage (MARS) facility at Suitland, Maryland. The colors
of the ground and the colors of the lettering are often interchanged,
i.e. gold with purple letters, purple with gold letters. Variations
of the slogan also occur.
15. Obituary of Inez Milholland Boissevain in the New York
Times, November 27, 1916, 11:1.
16. See: Paul S. Boyer, "Inez Milholland Boissevain," Notable
American Women, Vol.1 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971),
pp. 188-190. See also: Jailed for Freedom, previously cited.
17. Irwin, pp. 189-190.
18. Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom. (New York: Schocken
Books, 1976), p. 49.
19. National Woman's Party poster of Inez Milholland Boissevain
in the collections of the Woman's Party Headquarters, Washington,
D. C., and in the Women's History Collection, Political Collections
of the Division of Social History, National Museum of American History,
20. Richard Pankhurst, pp. 106-107.
21. Postcards, cartoons, and Rainbow Fliers in the Women's
History Collection, Political Collections of the Division of Social
History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian. The Woman
Citizen (October 20, 1917), cover page. 22. Jane Addams, A
Centennial Reader. (New York: Macmillan, 1960), pp.104 - 107.
23. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert in History of Woman Suffrage,
Vol. 3, pp. 78-79.
24. Current Opinion 54 (January, 1913), pp. 220-221.
25. "Give Her of the Fruit," The Woman Voter, Vol. 5, No.5
(May, 1914), front cover. Located in the Women's History Collection,
Political Collections of the Division of Social History, National
Museum of American History, Smithsonian. "Votes for Women" by B. M.
Boye, circa 1913, lithograph, Sierra Art Engraving Co., San Francisco.
Located in the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College.
26. Paula Hays Harper, "Votes for Women: A Graphic Episode
in the Battle of the Sexes," in Art and Architecture in the Service
of Politics, eds. Henry Millon and Linda Nochlin, (Cambridge, Mass.:
MIT Press, 1978), pp. 151, 156. This is an excellent, though quite
limited, study of suffrage graphics.
27. Suffrage banner in the collection of the Wisconsin State
Historical Society. Scene of women carrying this banner can be found
on a suffrage postcard in the Women's History Collection, Political
Collections in the Division of Social History, National Museum of
American History, Smithsonian.
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