FOOTNOTES

l. See "Introduction" by Edith Mayo in Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the m. Vote, ed. Carol O'Hare (Troutdale, Oregon: NewSage Press,1995); also, One Woman, One Vote, citation to come.
2. For a thorough development of the concept of Republican Motherhood see: Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America. (Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1980).
3. Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1965), Chapter 5; William L. O'Neill, Everyone Was Brave. (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969), pp. 33-37; Mary P. Ryan, Womanhood in America from Colonial Times to the Present. (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975), pp. 225-235.
4. "ERA Special Pullout Issue," New Directions for Women, (September/October, 1981), opposite p.15.
5. "Indiana State Convention," Justicia, Vol. 1., No. 4 (December, 1887), p.1.
6. "Show Your Colors," Justicia, Vol. 1, No.4 (December, 1887), pp. 4-5.
7. "The Local Headquarters; From Auburn," The Woman Voter, Vol.5, No.5 (May, 1914), pp.20-21.
8. Mary Gray Peck, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. (New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1944), pp. 248, 251.
9. Inez Haynes Irwin, The Story of Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party. (Fairfax, Va.: Denlinger's Publishers, 1977), p. 38. The colors were adopted at the suggestion of Mrs. John Jay White. No explicit reason for the adoption of those particular colors is given, perhaps because they were so commonly known.
10. Accession and documentation papers from the NAWSA, Accession 64601, Political Collections, Division of Social History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
11. Richard Pankhurst, Sylvia Pankhurst: Artist and Crusader. (London: Paddington Press Ltd., 1979), pp. 103-107.
12. Peck, p. 248.
13. Before joining the Congressional Union and, in 1916, the National Woman's Party, Inez Milholland was a member of Harriot Stanton Blatch's New York suffrage group, the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women, founded in 1907. The Equality League became the Women's Political Union in 1910, and merged with Alice Paul's Congressional Union in 1913. The "Forward Into Light" motto predates the formation of either the Congressional Union or the Woman's Party. A banner with that motto was used in the New York City suffrage parade held on May 4, 1912, in which Inez Milholland rode mounted on a dark colored horse. She wore a black hat, light colored riding costume, and dark gloves. See: New York City Suffrage Parade, New York Times, May 5, 1912, p. 1.
14. A variety of National Woman's Party banners in purple, white, and gold are housed in the National Park Service's Mid Atlantic Regional Storage (MARS) facility at Suitland, Maryland. The colors of the ground and the colors of the lettering are often interchanged, i.e. gold with purple letters, purple with gold letters. Variations of the slogan also occur.
15. Obituary of Inez Milholland Boissevain in the New York Times, November 27, 1916, 11:1.
16. See: Paul S. Boyer, "Inez Milholland Boissevain," Notable American Women, Vol.1 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971), pp. 188-190. See also: Jailed for Freedom, previously cited.
17. Irwin, pp. 189-190.
18. Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom. (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), p. 49.
19. National Woman's Party poster of Inez Milholland Boissevain in the collections of the Woman's Party Headquarters, Washington, D. C., and in the Women's History Collection, Political Collections of the Division of Social History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
20. Richard Pankhurst, pp. 106-107.
21. Postcards, cartoons, and Rainbow Fliers in the Women's History Collection, Political Collections of the Division of Social History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian. The Woman Citizen (October 20, 1917), cover page. 22. Jane Addams, A Centennial Reader. (New York: Macmillan, 1960), pp.104 - 107.
23. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert in History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 3, pp. 78-79.
24. Current Opinion 54 (January, 1913), pp. 220-221.
25. "Give Her of the Fruit," The Woman Voter, Vol. 5, No.5 (May, 1914), front cover. Located in the Women's History Collection, Political Collections of the Division of Social History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian. "Votes for Women" by B. M. Boye, circa 1913, lithograph, Sierra Art Engraving Co., San Francisco. Located in the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College.
26. Paula Hays Harper, "Votes for Women: A Graphic Episode in the Battle of the Sexes," in Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics, eds. Henry Millon and Linda Nochlin, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978), pp. 151, 156. This is an excellent, though quite limited, study of suffrage graphics.
27. Suffrage banner in the collection of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. Scene of women carrying this banner can be found on a suffrage postcard in the Women's History Collection, Political Collections in the Division of Social History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.

Please press the "back" button on your browser to return to the previous page.


 

 
Copyright © 2007 National Women's History Museum. .